Activity #12: Transposition, C & F majors, B-flat

Music:

The primary central focus is to introduce students to musical elements: Transposition and F major scale.
  • Students will explain how C major is transposed to the key of F. (Pr4.2)
  • Students will be able to identity middle C (low so), note D, (low la), and note E (low ti) in the key of F major on the staff. (Doraji, Kāhuli Aku). (Pr4.2)
  • Students will explain how responses to music are informed by the structure, the use of the elements of music, and social and cultural context.  (Doraji, Kāhuli Aku) (Pr4.1)
  • Students will explain how responses to music are informed by the structure, the use of the elements of music, and social and cultural context.  (Doraji, Kāhuli Aku) (Re7.2)

SEL:

The focuses of this unit are to guide students to explore self-awareness, social awareness, and responsible decision-making.

  • Students will be able to discover their roles, contributions, and the importance of sharing and making decisions as a group to protect nature, including the endangered species in the state of Hawai`i.

 

FOCUS KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS SONGS/CHANTS/BOOKS

SCALE

 

FORM

 

TONALITIES

  • Transposition from C to F major. 
  • Identify solfege and absolute names (including B-flat) in F major.
  • Key signature, accidental
  • Twinkle Twinkle
  • Doraji
  • Kāhuli Aku

Transposition


When playing an instrument and singing, musicians sometimes want to change from one key to another. Usually, a key change is made when the range of the song is not suitable for the singer. Changing from one key to another is called transposing.

 

So far, you have learned the key of C major. We are going to transpose from the key of C to the key of F.

 

  1. Can you count the steps from C up to F? (4 steps — C, D, E, F)
  2. In music, the distance between two notes is called an interval. What is the interval between C and F? (4th above)

So, if we transpose a song from C major to F major, all the notes in the song will be transposed to a 4th above.


C and F major

`Ukulele

Piano



1. First play note C major, then play step by step up, till the 4th note above (say that in the video). Say this is note F.

2. a) Play F major on the instruments, without Bb. b) Then play the note and count the note: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Ask which note sounds strange (4th note)?

3. Now play again with Bb and ask whether it sounds right.

4. Explain:

  • Piano: Explain the black key is below B, it is called B-flat. The interval between B and B-flat is 1/2 step.
  • `Ukulele: Explain the Bb is a fret above B. On `ukulele, the interval is 1/2 step if the notes are one fret apart.

5. Play F major scale again (ascending and descending). At the end explain in F major, we need to add an accidental, and that is Bb.

6. Play Twinkle Twinkle, emphasize on Bb.

6. Play C major scale (ascending and descending). Explain in C major, there is no accidental.

Please check with each other, so that both of you are on the same page. You know how to do this, you are better than this. : )


KEY-SIGNATURE
Musicians are smart. To avoid writing a flat every time there is a B, they put a flat (b) sign on the B line of each staff at the beginning of the score. This B-flat is called a key-signature. When players see the signature, they will play Bb automatically for every B they see in the score. See below:

Fa hand sign



Sight-singing

When sight-reading music exercises, we should read ahead. (While you are singing the notes in the current measure, move your eyes to the next measure.)

Now, let's sight read the below four phrases in solfege.

Ex 1

1. What is the first note's solfege? Are the rest of the notes in mm1 in step or skip movement? (step)

2. What is the first note's solfege in mm2? What is the contour of the melody? (ascending and descending)

3. What is the melody's contour in mm 3-4? (descending)

4. Sing this phrase.

 


Ex 2

1. Is the first note of Ex 2 the same as Ex 1? (same)

2. What is the first note's solfege in mm2? (mi) What is the contour of the melody? (descending)

3. Are the notes in mm 2 in step or skip movements? (skip)

4. Sing the solfege (mi-do-la,)

5. Is the next note in mm 3 lower or higher than the first note (a step lower)? Name the solfege (low so)

6. Sing all the notes.

 

 


Ex 3

1. What is the first note's solfege? Are the rest of the notes in mm1 & 2 the same or different? (same) 

2. Is the first note's solfege in mm3 and 4 the same? (same)

3. Sing this phrase.

 


Ex 4

  1. Compare Ex 3 & 4; what is added between all the low la? (low so, and do)
  2. Sing the first measure.
  3. Is mm1 the same or different from mm2? (same)
  4. Are the last two measures of Ex 4 the same or different from mm3-4 of Ex 3? (same)
  5. Sing Ex 4.

 


Daraji

Do you remember you sang this Korean song in Activity 9? Now we will read the song on the staff, which is in F major.

Note: Teacher may use the same sequence students sight-read Exercises 1-4 to hand sign and sing Doraji in solfege. 


SEL:
  • Ok, folks, I need you add more questions here.

Now, we are going to learn a Hawaiian mele which is also in F major.

Kāhuli Aku

Kāhuli is a rare endangered species well known as the Hawaiian Tree Snail. In the old days, it could be found in the rain forest of the major Hawaiian Islands. Most recently, with the natural changes of the modernization, it has been declared
an endangered species. The Kāhuli is also popularly known in legend to be a singing tree snail. In this composition, the shells chirp in the evening and ask the birds to bring them a drink of water. The `ākōlea is a delicate fern plant.

Some years ago, Auntie Winona Beamer, former Kamehameha School Hawaiian Music Resource set this old chant to music. The original chant is sited in Unwritten Literature of Hawai`i Nathaniel Emerson and is popularly used by our island teachers, especially for the purpose of school pageantry and traditional May Day Programs. The kōlea is a bird, the Pacific Golden Plover, that migrates to Hawai`i and is often recognized in August. In the spring, they return to their homes in Alaska and Siberia.

Published by Hula Hui O Kapunahala for education purposes.



To learn the hula, please visit this page:

Kāhuli Aku

 


Practice solfege and absolute names in Kāhuli Aku

  1. The class learns the hula.
  2. Identify solfege and notes middle C (low so,), D (low la,) F (do), G (re), and A (mi), in Kāhuli Aku.
  3. Identify notes in measures 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8. How are these measures similar and different?
  4. Students sing measures 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 in solfege. Teacher sings measures 3 and 7 in solfege.
  5. Students sing measures 3 and 7 with hand signs and solfege.
  6. Students sing measures 1-8 with hand signs and solfege.
  7. In phrase 5, find note E, it is one step below F. If F is do, what is the solfege of the note below do (refer to Water Canon)? (ti)
  8. In Kāhuli Aku, note E is low ti. It is the cousin of the high ti. Show the hand signs to students. Sing phrase 5 with hand signs and solfege.
  9. The class may review the rhythm patterns of quarter (ta), pair eighth (ti-ti), half (to-o), and dotted quarter-eighth (tai-ti) notes by singing the rhythm.
  10. The class may also try to sing the piece in absolute names of this piece.
  11. The class sings and performs this song with hula.

 


SEL:
  • Can you all write something about protecting endanger species?

Post your comments here

Comments: 6
  • #6

    Janice (Wednesday, 25 May 2022 19:58)

    I think we should take out the part about intervals. It's not a focus and we don't really touch on it again.

    M. 6 of Kahuli Aku is different from what I have on my sheet music. Did it change?

  • #5

    Kevin Morita (Tuesday, 24 May 2022 00:00)

    I agree with Lauren on the Doraji point, making it optional will help the length of the unit. Focusing on the content in this unit with Doraji being a supplemental activity is smart.

    Lauren also has really good SEL questions regarding the endangered species. Having students talk about their responsibility (Kuleana) in preserving endangered species is a good one.

  • #4

    Lauren (Sunday, 22 May 2022 21:39)

    Can you count the steps from C up to F? (4 steps — C, D, E, F)
    In music, the distance between two notes is called an interval. What is the interval between C and F? (4th above)

    *I think this is a little confusing for non-musicians. Especially in the graphic, it appears that there are three steps. So I think you should add something like:
    C to C is a 1st/unison
    C to D is a 2nd
    C to E is a 3rd
    C to F is a 4th
    ----------------------
    4. Explain:

    Piano: Explain the black key is below B, it is called B-flat. The interval between B and B-flat is 1/2 step.
    `Ukulele: Explain the Bb is a fret above B. On `ukulele, the interval is 1/2 step if the notes are one fret apart.
    5. Play F major scale again (ascending and descending). At the end explain in F major, we need to add an accidental, and that is Bb.
    * Maybe add something like an accidental can lower or raise a note by 1/2 a step. A sharp raises a note by 1/2 step, while a flat (as in Bb) will lower the note by 1/2 a step.
    * Now that we talked about intervals, I think it would now make sense to talk about the intervals in a major scale. I remember you had a graphic of a piano earlier but maybe put it here (if you feel
    appropriate) because then you could explain why the Bb has to be there (not just because it sounds good, but because it maintains the intervals that are needed to make it a major scale. But if this
    goes too far, I'm okay with it not being in there as well.
    -----------
    Ex 2.
    5. Is the next note in mm 3 lower or higher than the first note (a step lower)? Name the solfege (low so)
    * This is a little confusing. Maybe say: Is the next note in mm 3 lower or higher than the last note in mm 2? Name the solfege (low so).

  • #3

    Lauren F (Sunday, 22 May 2022 15:36)

    Oh we did talk about tai-ti... sorry, my bad :)

  • #2

    Lauren F (Sunday, 22 May 2022 15:34)

    Ex 3:
    Compare Ex 3 & 4; what is added between all the low la? (so)
    *True, but also there's one do added.
    Sing the first measure.
    ----------------
    Do you remember you sang this Korean song in Activity 9? Now we will read the song on the staff, which is in F major.
    *Maybe say: Note: we transposed the song from F to C, so that it is easier to sing. (Since that is the reason we went through all the steps in the beginning of the activity.)

    Note: Teacher may use the same sequence students sight-read Exercises 1-4 to hand sign and sing Doraji in solfege.

    * Maybe also note that teacher may want to eliminate the tim-ri rhythms and just show dots indicating the position--line/space on the staff. Either that or tell the kids to ignore the rhythm and just look at where the note heads are.

    Teacher may also choose not to have the kids sign the whole song (it's kind of a lot). If signing the whole song, maybe start with which lines are same/similar, so it's not overwheming.

    SEL:
    Sing the song in the key of C (no hand signs) then in the key of F. Does it sound different?
    Does it change the feelings or color of the song? Which key do you prefer?
    --------------

    SEL: (Kahuli)
    Why is it important that we sing this song using Hawaiian language instead of English?
    How are all the plants and animals in the song connected to one another (ecosystem)? How is this similar to the way in which humans should live and interact with nature?
    Endangered animals like the Kahuli have been negatively affected by human modernization and expansion. Why is it our responsibility (kuleana) to take care of the land and native species?

    ------------
    As for your comment at the beginning:
    Hey, people, this activity is really long, let me know if you think we should split it.
    *Maybe take out the Doraji or say that it is an optional bonus activity. They might be Doraji-ed out already. Plus it's a long song to sign (even though it's repetitive) and there's things in there that we didn't cover like tim-ri and maybe tai-ti.
    You may be able to go directly into Kahuli and just say that this is in the key of F and ask them to use the sightreading strategies that you covered in the previous section to help them sign with solfege.
    It may also help streamline the focus of the lesson, instead of going back to a song we already covered.

  • #1

    Lauren F (Sunday, 22 May 2022 13:25)

    Can you count the steps from C up to F? (4 steps — C, D, E, F)
    In music, the distance between two notes is called an interval. What is the interval between C and F? (4th above)

    *I think this is a little confusing for non-musicians. Especially in the graphic, it appears that there are three steps. So I think you should add something like:
    C to C is a 1st/unison
    C to D is a 2nd
    C to E is a 3rd
    C to F is a 4th
    ----------------------
    4. Explain:

    Piano: Explain the black key is below B, it is called B-flat. The interval between B and B-flat is 1/2 step.
    `Ukulele: Explain the Bb is a fret above B. On `ukulele, the interval is 1/2 step if the notes are one fret apart.
    5. Play F major scale again (ascending and descending). At the end explain in F major, we need to add an accidental, and that is Bb.
    * Maybe add something like an accidental can lower or raise a note by 1/2 a step. A sharp raises a note by 1/2 step, while a flat (as in Bb) will lower the note by 1/2 a step.
    * Now that we talked about intervals, I think it would now make sense to talk about the intervals in a major scale. I remember you had a graphic of a piano earlier but maybe put it here (if you feel appropriate) because then you could explain why the Bb has to be there (not just because it sounds good, but because it maintains the intervals that are needed to make it a major scale. But if this goes too far, I'm okay with it not being in there as well.
    -----------
    Ex 2.
    5. Is the next note in mm 3 lower or higher than the first note (a step lower)? Name the solfege (low so)
    * This is a little confusing. Maybe say: Is the next note in mm 3 lower or higher than the last note in mm 2? Name the solfege (low so).

    <okay... sorry I gotta go. I'll continue later.>